China's modern infrastructure construction is in the forefront of the world. The total mileage of high-speed railways and highways in China ranks first in the world. By the end of 2018, China's railway operating mileage had reached 132000 kilometers, including 30000 kilometers of high-speed railway operating mileage, accounting for 2/3 of the total high-speed railway mileage in the world, ranking first in the world; The total mileage of highways is 4.847 million kilometers, including 143000 kilometers of highways, ranking first in the world. China has basically built the world's largest transportation network.
The construction of China's comprehensive transportation system has been gradually accelerated, the transportation network has been increasingly improved, and the length of transportation lines has doubled with modernization. At the end of 2018, China's railway mileage reached 132000 kilometers, a five fold increase over the end of 1949. Among them, the high-speed railway reaches 30000 kilometers, basically forming a high-speed railway network with the main framework of "four vertical and four horizontal"; The highway mileage is 4.85 million kilometers, an increase of 59 times, of which the highway has grown from scratch to 143000 kilometers by the end of 2018.
The scale of the post and telecommunications industry continued to expand, the construction of telecommunications infrastructure accelerated, and informatization and networking reached a peak. The world's largest mobile broadband network has been basically completed. Modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing and artificial intelligence are emerging, and the construction of a new generation of high, mobile and secure information infrastructure is accelerating.
In the past 70 years of large-scale investment and construction, China's infrastructure has made rapid progress. In 1990, China's infrastructure assets ranked 15th in the world, rose to 7th in 2000, jumped to 3rd in 2010, second only to the United States and Japan, and became the first in 2021.
By the end of 2017, the accumulated investment in urban infrastructure in China had reached 113.68 trillion yuan, and the infrastructure stock had actually ranked first in the world. By the end of 2018, China's high-speed railway mileage had exceeded 29000 km, highways 142500 km, and coastal ports had nearly 1994 berths above 10000 tons. The city's subway mileage reached 3882 kilometers, ranking first in the world.
By the end of 2017, the total length of 220 kV and above transmission lines in China was 688000 km, ranking first in the world in terms of power grid scale. 30600km of levees of level 5 and above have been built, which can circle the earth more than 7 times. The annual penetration rate of China's network has increased by 10%, and the annual direct investment in telecommunications infrastructure construction is huge, directly driving hundreds of billions of domestic demand.
In 2019, China's investment in infrastructure, including transportation, telecommunications, Internet, water conservancy, environment and public facilities, reached 14 trillion yuan, an increase of 19% over the previous year, accounting for 22.2% of the total investment in social fixed assets, ranking first in the world. If combined with infrastructure investment in energy fields such as electricity, coal and oil, the general infrastructure investment scale is about 17 trillion yuan.
1. Sichuan Tibet Highway:
A story written in blood is located in the southwest of Hengduan Mountains, which cut off the mainland from east to west. As one of the youngest mountain systems in the world, it is unstable and prone to disasters, so that before the liberation of New China, there was still no decent road on 1.3 million square kilometers of land in Tibet.
At that time, the army transported goods to Lhasa, had to bypass Hong Kong, transported goods to India by sea, and then arrived in Lhasa with people and horses. In order to liberate Tibet, China urgently needs to build a road to enter Tibet. Therefore, under the call of "building roads while marching", the Eighteenth Army held a pledging ceremony to enter Tibet in Leshan on March 6, 1950, and decided to plant the five-star red flag in the Himalayas.
However, to build roads on the roof of the world, we must face the difficulties of high cold and hypoxia, lack of ice and snow, and the threat of frequent disasters. Such as earthquake, landslide, rock burst, karst, underground river, debris flow, unstable rock pile, fault fracture zone, high temperature rock heat, high ground stress and other geological disasters.
What is more difficult is that at that time, China's engineering construction capacity was still very poor, far from today's infrastructure craze. In order to find a reasonable and scientific route for this place with a small population, the surveyors travelled more than 20000 kilometers, crossing 200 mountains with thin air, sometimes climbing cliffs, and sometimes crossing glaciers with ropes. After the investigation, they all had long hair and barbarian beard, and looked yellow and thin.
Among them, the most difficult part of the journey is the Queer Pass in the Sharuri Mountains. The elevation of 5050 meters is the highest point of Sichuan Tibet Highway. The air is thin and snowy, and the temperature in winter can reach 20-30 ℃ below zero. It took nearly three months for the soldiers to open the road and cross the mountain pass, but they also sacrificed many soldiers. A comrade named Zhang Fulin is one of the heroes who died for the glory of Queer Mountain.
2. Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge:
Today, China can build both the longest bridge in the world and the tallest bridge in the world. China Bridge has set world records again and again. As we all know, on December 29, 1968, China's first self reliant building, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, was officially completed and opened to traffic. This is a double deck railway and highway bridge, which took eight years to complete. It is an important transportation hub in eastern China.
Before the construction, foreign experts poured a basin of cold water and thought that "no bridge can be built on the river in Nanjing". Because the engineering conditions here are very complex, the river is very fast, with an average width of more than 1500 meters, the narrowest part of 1100 meters, the water depth is usually between 15 and 30 meters, and the deepest part of more than 70 meters. Conquering such dangerous terrain can be said to be a world-class problem, but the Chinese people still face the challenges without fear.
In December 1968, Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was opened to traffic, which is a public railway bridge attracting worldwide attention. In order to test whether the bridge meets the strategic needs, the troops sent an armored team to pass over the bridge built by the Chinese themselves. At that time, 118 tanks were lined up, the distance between vehicles was 50 meters, and the whole road section was nearly 10 kilometers. The convoy of tanks drove slowly across the bridge. The bridge was undamaged after the whole tank fleet passed the bridge deck. Later, the bridge was recorded in the Guinness World Records, becoming the "longest public railway dual-use bridge in the world" and boasting internationally.
3. High speed railway in cold regions:
The impossible task is the northernmost "one horizontal line" of China's "eight vertical and eight horizontal" high-speed rail network. The successful operation of Hamu high-speed rail has shown the world the "new height" of China's high-speed rail technology. At this time, China has become the "infrastructure maniac".
The Beijing Harbin high-speed railway opened in 2012 is not only known as the "first high cooling high-speed railway in the world", but also marks the gradual maturity of China's high-speed railway technology. The lowest temperature in the area it passed reached minus 40 degrees Celsius. In order to ensure the normal power supply of trains, 317 power towers have been built along the Hami Multan high-speed railway to ensure the power supply of the line.
In the process of tunnel construction, the construction unit also used new waterproof materials, which are both hot and waterproof, overcoming the difficulties of tunnel construction in mountain areas.
Driving in the low temperature environment of minus 30 to 40 degrees Celsius, even with good subgrade conditions and vehicle body reconstruction, it still needs to face a series of tests such as cold wind, ice and snow. In order to prevent ice and snow from entering the brake pads and affecting the brakes under ice and snow conditions, the engineers expanded the gap between the brake pads and the brake discs, as well as the gap between the friction pads.
In the list of the world's highest bridges currently listed on Wikipedia, Chinese bridges account for 72! The Qinghai Tibet Railway has created nine of the best airports in the world at one go, and Beijing Daxing Airport is also known as "the first of the seven wonders of the new world". We found that the reason why China can become a "infrastructure maniac" is inseparable from the development of engineering technology and the dauntless spirit of sacrificing oneself for generations of engineers and workers.
4. State Grid State Grid
Speaking of the State Grid, many people may have the impression that they are super large state-owned enterprises, but the actual situation is not so simple. The word "strong" is absolutely well deserved by the State Grid. The following are four aspects of how powerful the National Grid is.
1. Income. In 2021, the revenue of State Grid will be 386.61 billion US dollars and the profit will be 10 billion US dollars, ranking second among the world's top 500 and China's top 500.
Second, technology. China's ultra-high voltage transmission technology is at the world's leading level. A systematic ultra-high voltage and smart grid technology system has been established, and 19 relevant international standards have been prepared. The ultra-high voltage AC voltage has become the international standard voltage. In 2009, the world's first ultra-high voltage AC line - Jindongnan Nanyang Jingmen 1000KV high-voltage line was put into use. In 2016, the construction of Zhundong Wannan 1100KV ultra-high voltage DC transmission project was commenced, with a total length of more than 3324km. It is the highest level transmission line in the world, with the largest transmission volume and the longest transmission distance.
In terms of international layout, the scale of overseas deployment of State Grid has reached the scale, with total overseas investment exceeding US $10 billion and total overseas assets reaching US $40 billion. It has invested in and operated backbone power grids in seven countries and regions, including the Philippines, Brazil, Portugal and Australia. Investment in power transmission and transformation projects covers many countries and regions. There is no loss in overseas investment projects, and all projects are profitable.
Four services. The State Grid covers 88% of the country's land area and serves more than 1.1 billion people. Needless to say, the natural conditions in the remote areas in the west are harsh, and the cost of power grid construction is high. The construction cost cannot be recovered, but relatively stable electricity can still be used.
Why is China's infrastructure so strong? Why are there so many miracle projects in this land? These domestic giants have made great contributions.
这是一台浮岛起重机/Floating island crane
This is XGC8800 crawler crane. The lifting capacity is 4000 tons, which is the largest in China.
这是高架桥铺设机/Viaduct laying machine
这是一台高速铁路铺设机/High speed railway laying machine
This is the Tiankun dredger, which can fill an island in a few months.
This is a self elevating building. The first floor can be built in four days.
Then there will be the following projects, such as the Hong Kong Zhuhai Macao Bridge
杭州湾跨海大桥/Hangzhou Bay Bridge
胶州湾大桥/Jiaozhou Bay Bridge
四渡河特大桥/Sidu River Bridge
京新高速公路/Beijing Xinjiang Expressway
China's infrastructure is very modern. To prove this, just type "Modern Infrastructure China" in Google search, and you will see the following pictures:
You can see very modern infrastructure all over China, and the government has approved projects to build the most advanced infrastructure in rural areas.
The strategy of building large-scale infrastructure has many purposes. With the growing economic scale, the economic slowdown is unavoidable, and the country can no longer enjoy the double-digit annual GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate.
A desirable approach is to spend a large amount of money on building large-scale infrastructure, which will prove useful for the strong economic development of local communities and provide employment opportunities for workers in the country.
A perfect example is the rapid expansion of China's high-speed railway. China Railway Construction Corporation (CRCC) is building a new network.
As more and more railway stations are opened in small towns, new high-speed railways are being built in western China. Therefore, Chinese people living in isolated rural villages can be more closely linked with the country's metropolitan area, which in turn promotes more development in rural areas.
Therefore, the new development of western China can bring more prosperity to many farmers living in remote villages. By building better roads, bridges and railways, farmers can more effectively transport their agriculture to local markets and redistribute it across the country.
China is the most populous country in the world, with about 1.4 billion people. At the same time, hundreds of millions of Chinese have left their farmland to seek high paying jobs and better opportunities in cities in eastern and southern China.
The country's large population needs to be fed, which requires the construction of modern infrastructure and the development of improved agricultural and ranching technologies.
Therefore, let's take a closer look at how China builds modern infrastructure to provide a good start for the domestic agricultural sector. In 2016, they announced a bold plan to modernize the country's agriculture. You can read the announcement on the official website of the Chinese government. Link here: