美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

如今,中国基建还走向国际,向世界分享中国速度。就连批评中国态度最坚决的人也惊叹于该国建造桥梁、铁路和其他基础设施的能力。华尔街日报2021年4月5日曾刊发文章《美国羡慕中国的基础设施,但要模仿它并非易事》称,两国有着不同的需求和制度,在改善基建方面美国可以直接运用的中国经验可能有限。海外网友提问道:中国的基础设施建设能力算得上世界第一吗?有哪个国家可以与中国相比?美国吗?这颇有青梅煮酒论英雄的味道,我们看看他们的观点。

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

问题:中国基建算是全球第一吗?有没有哪个国家可以相比?

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

海外杂志《聚焦中国》的回答

China's modern infrastructure construction is in the forefront of the world. The total mileage of high-speed railways and highways in China ranks first in the world. By the end of 2018, China's railway operating mileage had reached 132000 kilometers, including 30000 kilometers of high-speed railway operating mileage, accounting for 2/3 of the total high-speed railway mileage in the world, ranking first in the world; The total mileage of highways is 4.847 million kilometers, including 143000 kilometers of highways, ranking first in the world. China has basically built the world's largest transportation network.

中国的现代基础设施建设走在世界前列。中国高速铁路和公路总里程居世界第一。截至2018年底,中国铁路营业里程达13.2万公里,其中高铁营业里程达3万公里,占世界高铁总里程的2/3,位居世界第一;公路总里程484.7万公里,其中公路14.3万公里,居世界第一。中国已基本建成世界上最大的交通网络。

The construction of China's comprehensive transportation system has been gradually accelerated, the transportation network has been increasingly improved, and the length of transportation lines has doubled with modernization. At the end of 2018, China's railway mileage reached 132000 kilometers, a five fold increase over the end of 1949. Among them, the high-speed railway reaches 30000 kilometers, basically forming a high-speed railway network with the main framework of "four vertical and four horizontal"; The highway mileage is 4.85 million kilometers, an increase of 59 times, of which the highway has grown from scratch to 143000 kilometers by the end of 2018.

中国综合交通体系建设逐步加快,交通网络日益完善,交通线路长度随着现代化而成倍增长。2018年底,中国铁路运营里程达到13.2万公里,比1949年底增长了5倍。其中,高铁达3万公里,基本形成“四纵四横”主骨架的高铁网络;公路里程485万公里,增长59倍,其中公路从无到有,到2018年底达到14.3万公里。

The scale of the post and telecommunications industry continued to expand, the construction of telecommunications infrastructure accelerated, and informatization and networking reached a peak. The world's largest mobile broadband network has been basically completed. Modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing and artificial intelligence are emerging, and the construction of a new generation of high, mobile and secure information infrastructure is accelerating.

邮电行业规模持续扩大,电信基础设施建设加快推进,信息化、网络化走上高峰。全球最大的移动宽带网络已基本建成。大数据、云计算、人工智能等现代信息技术正在兴起,高、移动、安全的新一代信息基础设施加快建设。

In the past 70 years of large-scale investment and construction, China's infrastructure has made rapid progress. In 1990, China's infrastructure assets ranked 15th in the world, rose to 7th in 2000, jumped to 3rd in 2010, second only to the United States and Japan, and became the first in 2021.

近70年的大规模投资建设,中国基础设施突飞猛进, 1990年,中国的基础设施资产位居世界第15位,2000年升至第7位,2010年跃升至第3位,仅次于美国和日本,2021年,已是首位。

By the end of 2017, the accumulated investment in urban infrastructure in China had reached 113.68 trillion yuan, and the infrastructure stock had actually ranked first in the world. By the end of 2018, China's high-speed railway mileage had exceeded 29000 km, highways 142500 km, and coastal ports had nearly 1994 berths above 10000 tons. The city's subway mileage reached 3882 kilometers, ranking first in the world.

截至2017年底,中国城市基础设施累计投资达113.68万亿元,基础设施存量实际已位居世界第一。截至2018年底,中国高速铁路里程超过2.9万公里,高速公路14.25万公里,沿海港口万吨级以上泊位近1994个。城市地铁里程达到3882公里,居世界第一。

By the end of 2017, the total length of 220 kV and above transmission lines in China was 688000 km, ranking first in the world in terms of power grid scale. 30600km of levees of level 5 and above have been built, which can circle the earth more than 7 times. The annual penetration rate of China's network has increased by 10%, and the annual direct investment in telecommunications infrastructure construction is huge, directly driving hundreds of billions of domestic demand.

全国220千伏及以上输电线路总长达68.8万公里,电网规模居世界第一。已建成5级及以上河堤30600公里,可绕地球7圈以上。中国的网络年渗透率增长了10%,每年对电信基础设施建设的直接投资额巨大,直接拉动了数千亿的国内需求。

In 2019, China's investment in infrastructure, including transportation, telecommunications, Internet, water conservancy, environment and public facilities, reached 14 trillion yuan, an increase of 19% over the previous year, accounting for 22.2% of the total investment in social fixed assets, ranking first in the world. If combined with infrastructure investment in energy fields such as electricity, coal and oil, the general infrastructure investment scale is about 17 trillion yuan.

2019年,中国包括交通、电信、互联网、水利、环境和公共设施在内的基础设施投资达14万亿元,比上年增长19%,占社会固定资产投资总额的22.2%,位居世界第一。如果与电力、煤炭和石油等能源领域的基础设施投资相结合,一般基础设施投资规模约为17万亿元。

1. Sichuan Tibet Highway:

1、 川藏公路:

A story written in blood is located in the southwest of Hengduan Mountains, which cut off the mainland from east to west. As one of the youngest mountain systems in the world, it is unstable and prone to disasters, so that before the liberation of New China, there was still no decent road on 1.3 million square kilometers of land in Tibet.

一个用鲜血书写的故事位于横断山脉的西南部,它切断了大陆东西。作为世界上最年轻的山系之一,它不太稳定,灾害频发,以至于在新中国解放之前,西藏130万平方公里的土地上仍然没有像样的道路。

At that time, the army transported goods to Lhasa, had to bypass Hong Kong, transported goods to India by sea, and then arrived in Lhasa with people and horses. In order to liberate Tibet, China urgently needs to build a road to enter Tibet. Therefore, under the call of "building roads while marching", the Eighteenth Army held a pledging ceremony to enter Tibet in Leshan on March 6, 1950, and decided to plant the five-star red flag in the Himalayas.

当时,军队将物资运往拉萨,不得不绕过香港,通过海运将货物运往印度,然后用人驮马到达拉萨。为了解放西藏,中国迫切需要修建一条公路进入西藏,因此在“边修路边行军”的号召下,1950年3月6日,十八军在乐山举行了进藏誓师大会,决心将五星红旗插在喜马拉雅山。

However, to build roads on the roof of the world, we must face the difficulties of high cold and hypoxia, lack of ice and snow, and the threat of frequent disasters. Such as earthquake, landslide, rock burst, karst, underground river, debris flow, unstable rock pile, fault fracture zone, high temperature rock heat, high ground stress and other geological disasters.

然而,要在世界屋脊上修建道路,必须面临高寒缺氧、冰雪匮乏的困境,以及灾害频发的威胁。如地震、滑坡、岩爆、岩溶、地下暗河、泥石流、不稳定岩堆、断层破碎带、高温岩热、高地应力等地质灾害。

What is more difficult is that at that time, China's engineering construction capacity was still very poor, far from today's infrastructure craze. In order to find a reasonable and scientific route for this place with a small population, the surveyors travelled more than 20000 kilometers, crossing 200 mountains with thin air, sometimes climbing cliffs, and sometimes crossing glaciers with ropes. After the investigation, they all had long hair and barbarian beard, and looked yellow and thin.

更困难的是,当时中国的工程建设能力还很差,离今天的基础设施疯狂还很远。为了为这个人口较少的地方找到一条合理而科学的路线,勘测人员跋涉了2万多公里,越过200座空气稀薄的高山,有时攀登悬崖,有时用绳索穿越冰川。调查结束后,他们都长着长发,留着野蛮人般的胡须,看上去又黄又瘦。

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

Among them, the most difficult part of the journey is the Queer Pass in the Sharuri Mountains. The elevation of 5050 meters is the highest point of Sichuan Tibet Highway. The air is thin and snowy, and the temperature in winter can reach 20-30 ℃ below zero. It took nearly three months for the soldiers to open the road and cross the mountain pass, but they also sacrificed many soldiers. A comrade named Zhang Fulin is one of the heroes who died for the glory of Queer Mountain.

其中,旅程中最困难的部分是沙鲁里山脉的雀儿山口。海拔5050米是川藏公路的最高点。空气稀薄,多雪,冬季气温可达零下20-30℃。修路军用了近三个月的时间才打通道路,越过山口,但也牺牲了许多士兵。一位名叫张福林的同志是为雀儿山的荣耀而牺牲的英雄之一。

2. Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge:

2、 南京长江大桥:

Today, China can build both the longest bridge in the world and the tallest bridge in the world. China Bridge has set world records again and again. As we all know, on December 29, 1968, China's first self reliant building, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, was officially completed and opened to traffic. This is a double deck railway and highway bridge, which took eight years to complete. It is an important transportation hub in eastern China.

如今,中国既可以建造世界上最长的桥梁,也可以建造世界最高的桥梁。中国桥一次又一次创造了世界纪录。众所周知,1968年12月29日,中国第一座自力更生的建筑南京长江大桥正式建成通车。这是一座双层铁路和公路桥梁,历时8年建成,是中国东部重要的交通枢纽。

Before the construction, foreign experts poured a basin of cold water and thought that "no bridge can be built on the river in Nanjing". Because the engineering conditions here are very complex, the river is very fast, with an average width of more than 1500 meters, the narrowest part of 1100 meters, the water depth is usually between 15 and 30 meters, and the deepest part of more than 70 meters. Conquering such dangerous terrain can be said to be a world-class problem, but the Chinese people still face the challenges without fear.

开工前,外国专家泼了一盆冷水,认为“南京的河面上不能建桥”。因为这里的工程条件非常复杂,河水很湍急,平均宽度超过1500米,最窄处也有1100米,水深通常在15到30米之间,最深处超过70米。征服如此危险的地形可以说是一个世界级的问题,但中国人仍然毫无畏惧地面对挑战。

In December 1968, Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was opened to traffic, which is a public railway bridge attracting worldwide attention. In order to test whether the bridge meets the strategic needs, the troops sent an armored team to pass over the bridge built by the Chinese themselves. At that time, 118 tanks were lined up, the distance between vehicles was 50 meters, and the whole road section was nearly 10 kilometers. The convoy of tanks drove slowly across the bridge. The bridge was undamaged after the whole tank fleet passed the bridge deck. Later, the bridge was recorded in the Guinness World Records, becoming the "longest public railway dual-use bridge in the world" and boasting internationally.

1968年12月,南京长江大桥通车,这是一座引起全世界关注的公共铁路桥梁。为了测试这座桥是否符合战略需要,部队派遣了一支装甲队从中国人自己建造的桥上经过。当时,118辆坦克排成一列,车辆之间的距离为50米,整个路段将近10公里。坦克车队缓慢地驶过大桥。整个坦克车队通过桥面后,大桥毫发无损。后来,这座桥被载入吉尼斯世界纪录,成为“世界上最长的公共铁路两用桥”,并在国际上扬眉吐气。

3. High speed railway in cold regions:

3、 高寒地区高速铁路:

The impossible task is the northernmost "one horizontal line" of China's "eight vertical and eight horizontal" high-speed rail network. The successful operation of Hamu high-speed rail has shown the world the "new height" of China's high-speed rail technology. At this time, China has become the "infrastructure maniac".

不可能的任务作为中国“八纵八横”高铁网中最北的“一横线”,哈木高铁的成功运营向世界展示了中国高铁技术的“新高度”。此时,中国已经有了“基建狂魔”的称号。

The Beijing Harbin high-speed railway opened in 2012 is not only known as the "first high cooling high-speed railway in the world", but also marks the gradual maturity of China's high-speed railway technology. The lowest temperature in the area it passed reached minus 40 degrees Celsius. In order to ensure the normal power supply of trains, 317 power towers have been built along the Hami Multan high-speed railway to ensure the power supply of the line.

2012年开通的京哈高速铁路不仅被誉为“世界上第一条高冷高速铁路”,也标志着中国高速铁路技术的逐步成熟。它所经过地区的最低气温达到了零下40摄氏度。为了保证列车的正常供电,哈木高速铁路沿线修建了317座电力塔,以保证线路供电。

In the process of tunnel construction, the construction unit also used new waterproof materials, which are both hot and waterproof, overcoming the difficulties of tunnel construction in mountain areas.

在隧道施工过程中,施工单位还采用了全新的防水材料,既热又防水,克服了高山地区隧道施工的困难。

Driving in the low temperature environment of minus 30 to 40 degrees Celsius, even with good subgrade conditions and vehicle body reconstruction, it still needs to face a series of tests such as cold wind, ice and snow. In order to prevent ice and snow from entering the brake pads and affecting the brakes under ice and snow conditions, the engineers expanded the gap between the brake pads and the brake discs, as well as the gap between the friction pads.

在零下三四十摄氏度的低温环境下行驶,即使有良好的路基条件和车身改造,仍需面临寒风、冰雪等一系列考验。为了防止冰雪进入制动片并影响冰雪条件下的制动器,工程师们扩大了制动片和制动盘之间的间隙,并扩大了摩擦片之间的间隙。

In the list of the world's highest bridges currently listed on Wikipedia, Chinese bridges account for 72! The Qinghai Tibet Railway has created nine of the best airports in the world at one go, and Beijing Daxing Airport is also known as "the first of the seven wonders of the new world". We found that the reason why China can become a "infrastructure maniac" is inseparable from the development of engineering technology and the dauntless spirit of sacrificing oneself for generations of engineers and workers.

在维基百科(Wikipedia)上目前列出的世界最高桥梁列表中,中国桥梁占了72位!青藏铁路一口气创造了9个世界上最好的机场,北京大兴机场也被誉为“新世界七大奇迹之首”,我们发现,中国之所以能够成为一个“基础设施狂人”,与工程技术的发展以及为数代工程师和工人牺牲自我的无畏精神密不可分。

4. State Grid State Grid

4、 国家电网国家电网

Speaking of the State Grid, many people may have the impression that they are super large state-owned enterprises, but the actual situation is not so simple. The word "strong" is absolutely well deserved by the State Grid. The following are four aspects of how powerful the National Grid is.

说起国家电网,很多人的印象可能是超大型国有企业,但实际情况并非如此简单。“强大”这个词对于国家电网来说绝对是当之无愧的。以下是国家电网有多强大的四个方面。

1. Income. In 2021, the revenue of State Grid will be 386.61 billion US dollars and the profit will be 10 billion US dollars, ranking second among the world's top 500 and China's top 500.

1.收入。2021年,国家电网的收入为3866.1亿美元,利润为100亿美元,在世界500强和中国500强中排名第二。

Second, technology. China's ultra-high voltage transmission technology is at the world's leading level. A systematic ultra-high voltage and smart grid technology system has been established, and 19 relevant international standards have been prepared. The ultra-high voltage AC voltage has become the international standard voltage. In 2009, the world's first ultra-high voltage AC line - Jindongnan Nanyang Jingmen 1000KV high-voltage line was put into use. In 2016, the construction of Zhundong Wannan 1100KV ultra-high voltage DC transmission project was commenced, with a total length of more than 3324km. It is the highest level transmission line in the world, with the largest transmission volume and the longest transmission distance.

第二,技术,中国特高压输电技术处于世界领先水平,建立了系统的特高压和智能电网技术体系,编制了19项相关国际标准,特高压交流电压已成为国际标准电压。2009年,世界上第一条特高压交流线路——金东南-南阳-荆门1000KV高压线投入使用。2016年,准东皖南1100KV特高压直流输电工程开工建设,全长3324多公里。它是世界上最高等级的输电线路,传输量最大,传输距离最长。

In terms of international layout, the scale of overseas deployment of State Grid has reached the scale, with total overseas investment exceeding US $10 billion and total overseas assets reaching US $40 billion. It has invested in and operated backbone power grids in seven countries and regions, including the Philippines, Brazil, Portugal and Australia. Investment in power transmission and transformation projects covers many countries and regions. There is no loss in overseas investment projects, and all projects are profitable.

国际布局。国家电网海外部署规模达到规模,海外投资总额超过100亿美元,海外资产总额达到400亿美元。它已在菲律宾、巴西、葡萄牙和澳大利亚等7个国家和地区投资和运营了骨干电网。输变电项目的投资遍布许多国家和地区。海外投资项目没有亏损,所有项目都是盈利的。

Four services. The State Grid covers 88% of the country's land area and serves more than 1.1 billion people. Needless to say, the natural conditions in the remote areas in the west are harsh, and the cost of power grid construction is high. The construction cost cannot be recovered, but relatively stable electricity can still be used.

全面服务,国家电网覆盖了全国88%的土地面积,供电服务人口超过11亿人。东海岸不用说,但西部偏远地区自然条件恶劣,电网建设成本高。建设成本无法收回,但仍可以使用相对稳定的电力。


美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

加拿大网友乔纳森•杨森的回答

Why is China's infrastructure so strong? Why are there so many miracle projects in this land? These domestic giants have made great contributions.

中国基建为什么这么强?这片土地上为什么有这么多奇迹工程?这些国产巨无霸功不可没。

这是一台浮岛起重机/Floating island crane

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

This is XGC8800 crawler crane. The lifting capacity is 4000 tons, which is the largest in China.

这是XGC8800履带式起重机。起重能力为4000吨,是中国最大的。

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

这是高架桥铺设机/Viaduct laying machine

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

这是一台高速铁路铺设机/High speed railway laying machine

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

这是一台沥青摊铺机/Asphalt paver

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

这是一台大直径盾构机,用于挖掘隧道的大型设备/tbm

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

This is the Tiankun dredger, which can fill an island in a few months.

这是天鲲挖泥船,它可以在几个月内填满一个岛屿。

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

This is a self elevating building. The first floor can be built in four days.

这是一座自升式建筑,一层可以在四天内建成。

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

Then there will be the following projects, such as the Hong Kong Zhuhai Macao Bridge

然后才会有以下工程项目,如港珠澳大桥

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

杭州湾跨海大桥/Hangzhou Bay Bridge

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

胶州湾大桥/Jiaozhou Bay Bridge

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

四渡河特大桥/Sidu River Bridge

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

北盘江大桥/Beipanjiang Bridge

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

矮寨大桥/Aizhai Bridge

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

京新高速公路/Beijing Xinjiang Expressway

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)



美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

美国国际关系专家兰斯•钱伯斯的回答

China's infrastructure is very modern. To prove this, just type "Modern Infrastructure China" in Google search, and you will see the following pictures:

中国的基础设施非常现代化,为了证明这一点,只需在谷歌搜索中键入“现代基础设施中国”,您将看到以下几幅图片:

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

美国基础设施很差吗(美国基础设施建设为什么落后)

You can see very modern infrastructure all over China, and the government has approved projects to build the most advanced infrastructure in rural areas.

你可以在中国各地看到非常现代化的基础设施,而政府也批准了在农村地区兴建最先进基础设施的项目。

The strategy of building large-scale infrastructure has many purposes. With the growing economic scale, the economic slowdown is unavoidable, and the country can no longer enjoy the double-digit annual GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate.

建设大规模基础设施的战略有很多目的。随着经济规模越来越大,经济放缓不可回避,国家再也无法享受两位数的年GDP(国内生产总值)增长率。

A desirable approach is to spend a large amount of money on building large-scale infrastructure, which will prove useful for the strong economic development of local communities and provide employment opportunities for workers in the country.

一种可取的方法是将巨量的资金用于建设大规模的基础设施,这将证明对当地社区经济强劲发展很有用,并为该国的劳动者提供就业机会。

A perfect example is the rapid expansion of China's high-speed railway. China Railway Construction Corporation (CRCC) is building a new network.

一个完美的例子是中国高速铁路的快速扩建,中国铁路建设公司(CRCC)正在建设新的网络。

As more and more railway stations are opened in small towns, new high-speed railways are being built in western China. Therefore, Chinese people living in isolated rural villages can be more closely linked with the country's metropolitan area, which in turn promotes more development in rural areas.

随着越来越多的火车站在小城镇开放,中国西部正在修建新的高速铁路。因此,生活在农村孤立村庄的中国人可以与该国的都市圈更紧密地联系起来,这反过来促进了农村地区的更多发展。

Therefore, the new development of western China can bring more prosperity to many farmers living in remote villages. By building better roads, bridges and railways, farmers can more effectively transport their agriculture to local markets and redistribute it across the country.

因此,中国西部地区的新发展可以为居住在偏远乡村的许多农民带来更多的繁荣。通过修建更好的道路、桥梁和铁路,农民可以更有效地将农业运输到当地市场,并在全国范围内重新分配。

China is the most populous country in the world, with about 1.4 billion people. At the same time, hundreds of millions of Chinese have left their farmland to seek high paying jobs and better opportunities in cities in eastern and southern China.

中国是世界上人口最多的国家,约有14亿人。与此同时,数亿中国人已经离开农田,在中国东部和南部城市寻找高薪工作和更好的机会。

The country's large population needs to be fed, which requires the construction of modern infrastructure and the development of improved agricultural and ranching technologies.

该国有大量人口需要养活,这需要建设现代化的基础设施,同时发展改良的农业和牧场技术。

Therefore, let's take a closer look at how China builds modern infrastructure to provide a good start for the domestic agricultural sector. In 2016, they announced a bold plan to modernize the country's agriculture. You can read the announcement on the official website of the Chinese government. Link here:

因此,让我们更仔细地看看中国如何建设现代基础设施,为国内农业部门提供一个良好的开端。2016年,他们宣布了一项大胆的计划,实现国家农业现代化。你可以在政府的官方网站上阅读公告。链接

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